The definitions used in these explanatory notes for the different types of capital held by banks are set out in CRD IV. CRD IV sets out EU prudential rules for banks, building societies and investment firms and consists of two elements: Article 92 CRR requires institutions to comply at all times with the following capital requirements: Where an institution has been authorised by the supervisory authority to apply an advanced measurement approach in accordance with Articles 321 et seq., the CRR, It may, in compliance with qualitative and quantitative supervisory standards, use an internal model to calculate its Use capital requirements. The model must be checked and approved in advance by superiors. If significant changes or extensions are made to the institution`s internal model, which has already been approved by the supervisors, the model must be reviewed by the supervisory authorities. CRD IV sets out the capital requirements for the different types or “levels” of own funds mentioned in the Banking Regulatory Capital Statistical Publication. These definitions are fully defined in the Capital Requirements Regulation. Key terms for reading this statistical release are: The amount of capital and risk-weighted assets reported to us in currencies other than the pound sterling is converted to pounds sterling prior to aggregation. This conversion has an impact on the level of capital, risk-weighted assets and aggregate capital ratios. For example, if GBP depreciates against USD and a company`s reporting currency is USD, the levels converted to GBP will be higher than when exchange rates are stable. Aggregate measures are affected because an increase in the number of reporting agents in USD leads to a higher weighting of these companies` measures. CRD IV imposes capital requirements in relation to an institution`s total exposure amount. It is a regulatory concept in which the carrying amount of an entity`s assets and credit exposures is weighted according to an assessment of the loss potential of each risk. Institutions may calculate risk-weighted exposures using either the Standardised Approach or the Internal Rating Approach (subject to approval by their local competent authority).
Both are briefly described below: The CET1 capital ratio is the CET1 capital of the institution as a percentage of its total risk-weighted assets. The Tier 1 ratio is the Tier 1 capital of the institution expressed as a percentage of its total risk-weighted assets. The total capital ratio is the total capital (own funds) of the institution expressed as a percentage of its total risk-weighted assets. The above requirements are referred to as Pillar 1 requirements. In addition, the UK`s capital framework includes both Pillar 2 capital requirements, which apply to individual banks, and system-wide capital buffers to cushion stresses. Further details on the capital framework can be found in the December 2015 supplement to the Financial Stability Review entitled “The framework of equity requirements for UK banks”. Currently, the CET1 capital ratio and the Tier 1 ratio can be calculated on a transitional or final basis. The difference between these two tax bases is that the use of a transitional basis allows institutions to phase in CET1 deductions over a five-year period, which will be increased by 20% each year until 2019, and to phase out certain instruments that do not comply with CRR standards by 2022. The CET1 capital ratios and Tier 1 ratios presented in the publication are based on transitional calculations of Tier 1 and Tier 1 capital as reported by institutions as COREP CA1 (own funds) and CA2 (capital requirements). An institution must inform the supervisory authorities if it intends to apply the standardised approach. In order to calculate own funds requirements under the Standardised Approach, the `relevant indicator` should be divided into eight activity areas defined in Article 317 CRR and multiplied by a factor of 12 %, 15 % or 18 %. In accordance with Article 319 of the CRR and subject to the approval of the banking supervisory authorities, institutions whose main activity is retail or investment banking may opt for the alternative standard approach.
The Alternative Standard Approach calculates the capital requirement in each industry by multiplying the notional amount of exposures by a factor of 0.035, as required by banking supervision. In addition, quality standards must be respected when applying the standardised approach. Current approaches were revised by the Basel Committee in 2017 as part of the finalization of the Basel III framework. On this basis, only one approach should be pursued in the future: the new standardised approach to operational risk (RO SA), which is to be implemented in the European Union under CRR 3. Methodologically, the new SA OR is based on the core indicators approach and the previous standard approach. By introducing a loss component, the SA RO also makes it possible to take into account historical losses related to an institution`s operational risk when calculating capital requirements. The Basel Committee decided that the application of the loss element would be optional. As a result, it will no longer be possible to use model-based approaches to Pillar 1 requirements. To help users understand the relative impact of changes in the different components, the percentage change in the total capital ratio has been broken down into separate contributions attributable to changes in capital and risk-weighted assets (see Figure 2 of each communication). While this is not necessarily possible for an indicator defined as the ratio of two components – it can only work for an indicator that can be written as the sum of different terms – the error in this decomposition lies in the contributions of the numerator and second-order denominator and can be considered acceptable in typical situations. Since the residual error is nothing more than an artifact of arithmetic and, in this case, it is negligible and not visible when shown in Diagram 2, it has been omitted. This remainder will be taken into account in future versions if it turns out that it is greater than 0.1 percentage points.
The Deutsche Bundesbank is also pursuing this approach in order to show the breakdown of changes in the Tier 1 capital ratio of the selected banks. Article 99 of the CRR requires institutions to report capital requirements (regulatory own funds). The exact format and frequency are defined in the implementing document for supervisory information technical standards (TSIs) prepared by the European Banking Authority, which provides the harmonised reporting framework for common European reporting (COREP). This publication uses data submitted in COREP forms CA1 (own funds) and CA2 (capital requirements). Copies of these templates can be found in the ITS appendices. The own funds requirements apply both to sole proprietorships and (in accordance with Paragraph 10a KWG in conjunction with Article 11 CRR) to institutional groups and financial holding groups on a consolidated basis. The CRR mainly contains the quantitative requirements applicable to banks, such as capital adequacy, large exposures and liquidity rules. Under the rules of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR), banks must calculate a total risk exposure amount composed of the sum of their credit risk, operational risk, market risk and credit adjustment risk (CVA risk). This total amount of risk exposure is compared to own funds to determine the Bank`s capital ratio. In addition to these minimum capital requirements, institutions shall comply with the capital buffer requirements. Prudential capital requirements reflect a risk-based supervisory approach which, depending on a bank`s individual risk position, is designed to ensure the most appropriate capital coverage for risk. The risked exposure values used in this publication are taken from Form COREP CA2 (Capital Requirements).
The risk exposure groups used in the publication have been formed based on the risk groups on Form CA2 and the sum for each group is the sum of the exposures for that group calculated using the standard approach and the IRB approach. Credit institutions and reportable financial services institutions will find an overview of the material and technical requirements here. The data underlying the graphs, tables and commentaries in this publication are the own funds data of the European Banking Authority (European Banking Authority (EBA) Joint Statement (CAP), which can be found in Forms CA1 (own funds) and CA2 (capital requirements). Further information on the preparation of such data is available in the EBA documentation on implementing technical standards for supervisory reporting. The CRR (Article 92) sets minimum endpoint requirements for the own funds of institutions. These are as follows: The CRR provides for three alternative methods for calculating capital requirements for operational risk: The basis for calculating the core indicators approach and the standard approach is the three-year average of the `relevant indicator` consisting of certain items in the profit and loss account (net interest and commissions received, B. Net operating income and other operating income).